We have become accustomed to trusting our 5 senses to explain all aspect of our world. We have learnt that if we can not hear it, see it, smell it, taste it, or touch it then ‘it’ can not be explained and therefore simply does not exist.
Since the 16th century renaissance shift from the dogmatic subjective teachings of the church to the clearly defined objective methods of science we have become ever more relient on objective beliefs to mould our world views. Most notably, science, health, economy, and finance, kneaded together by a political system that has evolved as a consequence.
Despite this trend of objective thinking, scientists & philosophers throughout the millennia have spoken of the senses beyond the ‘Famous 5′ whose study today we call Parapsychology or psi.
This knowledge has been available for those with an interest (and the ability not to be burned at the stake) since time and memorial which is important when researching the people who have, and currently do, influence world affairs.
As of early 17th century scientific research into psi phenomena, such as telepathy and clairvoyance became more evident, some of the most significant work has been:
- 1627, Sir Francis Bacon publishes “Sylva Sylvarium: A Natural Historie in Ten Centuries”. Proposed using cards and dice in psi experiments. Also foreseen the use of statistical analysis.
- Around 1780 Franz Anton Mesmer proposes the concept of “Animal Magnetism”. From his research he developed hypnosis, psychoanalysis and psychoanalysis medicine.
- Around the same time one of Mesmer’s students Armaud Marie Jacques de Chastenet, aka Marquis de Puységur, discovered the first method to evoke psi phenomena, through a kind of deep hypnosis, called “magnetic somnambulism”.
- 1784 – French Academy of Sciences, chaired by Benjamin Franklin was to evaluate scientific status of mesmerism. It concluded that no evidence of “magnetic fluid” existed.
- 1784 – French Royal Society of Medicine asked to determine the medical benefits of Mesmer’s work. The same but minority report declared that some healing effects could not be attributed to placebo effect (called imagination at that time)
- Around 1830′s – French Royal Society of Medicine investigates psi phenomena. It described many witnessed psi experiences and gave a totally positive outcome in favor of the existence of psi.
- Around 1848, distinguished British scientist Sir William Crookes studies Scottish medium Daniel Dunglas Home, who displayed unsurpassed abilities such as levitation.
- 1876, Sir William Barrett from Royal College of Science in Dublin presented research on “Thought transference”.
- 1882, London, Society for Psychical Research (SPR) was founded. It was the first scientific organization for the study of psi phenomena.
- Around 1888, French psychologist Charles Richet published an article describing experiments of telepathy. He used playing cards for testing and was the first to use statistical inference for studying telepathy. His conclusion was that faculty of cognition existed unrelated to the regular senses, at least in certain persons at certain times.
- Around 1903 Frederic Myers from SPR published “Human personality and its survival of bodily death” - one of the first books investigating survival of consciousness after death.
- Around 1908 British physicist J.J. Thomson proposed that electromagnetic fields carried information between people.
- 1911, Thomas Welton Stanford donated 20,000 pounds to Stanford university founded by his brother to establish “Psychic Fund”.
- 1917, Harvard psychologist Leonard Troland obtained successful results of psi with one of the first automated ESP testing machines.
- Around 1920, Paris, Institut Metapsychique Internatianal is founded.
- Around 1925, French researcher René Warcollier describes successful picture-drawing psi experiments in his book “La Télépathie”.
- Around 1929, biologist Joseph Banks Rhine (J.B. Rhine) started a psi research program at Duke University. Continued till 1965.
- Around 1935, J.B. Rhine published his book “Extra-Sensory Perception”.
- Around 1935, British psychologist G.N.M. Tyrell reported the development of an ESP testing machine with random target selection.
- 1937, Journal of Parapsychology began publication, founded by J.B.Rhine.
- Around 1939, Sir Hubert Wilkins and Harold Sherman conducted long distance (3000 miles) experiment in clairvoyance with remarkable results.
- During WW2, British psychologist Whately Carington conducted clairvoyance experiments involving drawing with large groups of people with highly successful results.
- 1951, New York City, medium Eileen Garrett establishes the Parapsychological Foundation.
- 1957, the Parapsychological Association, international organization of scientists and scholars was founded.
- 1957, Czech physician Stepán Figar performed one of the first experiments testing subconscious forms of telepathy.
- 1965, two researchers from the Department of Ophthalmology at Jefferson Medical College in Philadelphia published an article in the Science journal titled “Extrasensory electroencephalographic induction between identical twins”. The results showed striking correlation between their minds.
- 1969, Helmut Schmidt, a German-American physicist used electronic coin flipper (RNG – random number generator) for testing psychokinesis (PK).
- 1972, Harold Puthoff, Russell Targ and Edwin May started a program of classified research on psi phenomena for the US government.
- 1973, Apollo 14 astronaut Edgar Mitchell, founded the Institute of Noetic Sciences after a successful ESP card experiment on the Apollo mission.
- 1974, Bob Monroe formed the Monroe Institute and carried out scientific study into out of body experiences (OBE’s)
- 1979, Princeton Engineering Anomalies Research (PEAR) program started. Would be one of the leading psi research organizations.
- 1981, US congress asked the Congressional Research Service to assess the scientific evidence for psi. After 15 years 5 reviews by different organizations concluded that some experimental evidence for psi warrants serious study.
- 1985, Arthur Koestler and his wife gave funds to establish a Chair of parapsychology which was adopted by the University of Edinburgh.
- 1989, Sony Labs researcher Masaru Ibuka established a psi lab in Sony called ESPER. After several years it closed. They found the ESP does exist but had not found how to use it practically.
- 1994, CIA made public a top secret psi research and application program code-named STARGATE.
- 1994, Synopsis of a paper presented on 21 March 1994 at the United Nations to members of the Society for Enlightenment and Transformation titled ‘New scientific discoveries regrading the existence of certain PSI faculties ‘
- 1998-2000 Several companies started researching practical applications of psi.
What do parapsychologists study?
Many feel that the strangest, and most interesting, aspect of parapsychological phenomena is that they do not appear to be limited by the known boundaries of space or time. In addition, they blur the sharp distinction usually made between mind and matter. In popular usage, the basic parapsychological phenomena are categorized as follows:
- Psi : A neutral term for parapsychological phenomena. Psi, psychic, and psychical are synonyms.
- Telepathy : Direct mind-to-mind communication.
- Precognition: Also called premonition. Obtaining information about future events, where the information could not be inferred through normal means. Many people report dreams that appear to be precognitive.
- Clairvoyance : Sometimes called remote viewing; obtaining information about events at remote locations, beyond the reach of the normal senses.
- ESP: Extra-sensory perception; a general term for obtaining information about events beyond the reach of the normal senses. This term subsumes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
- Psychokinesis : Also called PK; direct mental interaction with physical objects, animate or inanimate.
- Bio-PK : Direct mental interactions with living systems.
- NDE : Near death experience; an experience reported by those who were revived from nearly dying. Often refers to a core experience that includes feelings of peace, OBE, seeing lights and other phenomena.
- OBE : Out-of-body experience; the experience of feeling separated from the body, often accompanied by visual perceptions as though from above the body.
- Reincarnation: The belief that we live successive lives, with primarily evidence coming from the apparent recollections of previous lives by very small children.
- Haunting : Recurrent phenomena reported to occur in particular locations that include apparitions, sounds, movement of objects, and other effects.
- Poltergeist: Large-scale PK phenomena often attributed to spirits, but which are now thought to be due to a living person, frequently an adolescent.
What we’re coming to realize is that there’s a huge difference between the ‘reception’ of psi information, vs. its conscious detection – its manifestation in the person’s conscious mind. It’s not like telepathic information just overrides everything else happening at the moment and crashes into consciousness, as if we had zapped the TV from one channel to another. Rather, psi information may be received at an unconscious level, but not surface into the conscious mind at all; or, it may emerge only hours after it has been received, when our body and mind are in a more calm or relaxed state.
More and more, psi researchers are finding that psi is largely an unconscious function. We are probably receiving a lot more psi information than we ever realize — the occasional psi experience being simply the tip of the iceberg. So, while reception of psi may be occurring all the time, detection depends upon the complex interaction of a number of psychological and bodily conditions. The main task for modern researchers is to define conditions and techniques that allow us to better detect telepathy and other forms of psi information.
One of the conditions that stands out as particularly relevant is the person’s state of consciousness. The tasks and busy-ness of day-to-day life create a kind of ‘mental noise,’ which tends to be reduced in certain mental states, such as sleep. So it’s not surprising that subtle psi information could only be perceived in such states. Since the late 1960s, a good deal of parapsychological work has thus focused on telepathy in association with ‘altered’ states of consciousness — dreams, deep relaxation, meditation, or hypnosis. All of these states are states in which people seem to be far more receptive to psi than our ‘normal’ or habitual state. The dream telepathy work proved that psi could be reliably obtained (continued)
It is again important, when understanding the world we live in today, that this knowledge, backed up with resources and agendas not always aimed at the greater good, can provide great power & influence.